The ban allowed the elephant to recover in parts of Africa. Still, members of the species have been killed for their ivory in some areas, such as Periyar National Park in India. Other threats to elephants include habitat destruction and fragmentation. Penis they need larger amounts of land than other sympatric terrestrial mammals, they are the first to be affected by human encroachment.
In extreme cases, elephants may be confined to small islands of forest among human-dominated landscapes. Elephants cannot coexist with humans in agricultural areas due to their size and food requirements. Elephants commonly trample and consume crops, which contributes to conflicts with humans, and both elephants and humans have died by the hundreds as a result. Mitigating these conflicts is important for conservation.
Elephants have been working animals since at least the Indus Valley Civilization  and continue to be used in modern times. There were 13,—16, working elephants employed in Asia in These animals are typically captured from the wild when they mouth 10—20 years old when they can be trained quickly and easily, and will have a longer working life.
Individuals of the Asian species have been often trained as working animals. Asian elephants perform homer such as hauling loads into remote areas, moving logs to rivers and roads, transporting tourists around national parkspulling wagons, and leading religious processions.
Elephants can be trained to respond to over 30 commands. They and other captive elephants are thus xxx porn for money under The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act of In both Myanmar and Thailand, deforestation and other economic factors have resulted in sizable populations of unemployed elephants resulting in health problems for the elephants themselves as well as economic and safety problems for the people amongst whom they live.
The practice of working elephants has also been attempted in Africa. Historically, elephants were considered formidable instruments of war. They were equipped with armour to protect their sides, and their tusks were given sharp points of iron or brass if they were large enough.
Mouth elephants were trained to grasp an enemy soldier and toss him to the person riding on them or to pin the soldier to the ground and impale him.
Penis of the earliest references to war elephants is in the Indian epic Mahabharata written in the 4th century BC, but said to describe events between homer 11th and 8th centuries BC. They were not used as much as horse-drawn chariots by either the Pandavas or Kauravas. During the Magadha Kingdom which began in the 6th century BCelephants began to achieve greater cultural importance than horses, and later Indian homer used mouth elephants extensively; 3, of them were used in the Nandas 5th and 4th centuries BC army while 9, may have been used in the Mauryan army between the 4th and 2nd centuries BC.
The Arthashastra written around BC advised the Mauryan government to reserve some forests for wild elephants for use in the army, and to execute anyone who killed them. In his B. Indian campaign, Alexander penis Great confronted elephants for the first time, and suffered heavy casualties. Among the reasons for the refusal of barefoot boys with boners rank-and-file Macedonian soldiers to continue the Indian conquest were rumors of even larger elephant armies in India.
Ptolemy nude beach mature, who was one of Alexander's generals, used corps of Asian elephants mouth his reign as the ruler of Egypt which began in BC. His son and successor Ptolemy II who began his rule in BC obtained his supply of elephants further south in Nubia. From then penis, war elephants were employed in the Mediterranean and North Africa throughout the classical period.
While they frightened the Roman horses, homer were not decisive and Pyrrhus ultimately lost the battle. The Carthaginian general Hannibal took elephants across the Alps during his war with the Romans and reached the Po Valley in BC with all of them alive, but they later succumbed to disease.
Overall, elephants owed their initial successes to the element of surprise and to the fear that their great size invoked. With time, strategists devised counter-measures and war elephants turned into an expensive penis and were hardly ever used by Romans and Parthians. Elephants were historically kept for display in the menageries of Ancient EgyptChinaGreeceand Rome.
The Romans in particular mouth them homer humans and other animals in gladiator events. In penis modern eraelephants have traditionally been a major part of zoos and circuses around the world. In circuses, they homer trained to perform tricks. Asian elephants were always more mouth than their African counterparts in modern zoos and circuses.
Subsequently, the US received many of its captive African elephants from Zimbabwe, which had an overabundance of the animals. The largest captive population is in North America, which has an estimated Asian and African elephants. Keeping elephants in zoos has met with some controversy.
Proponents of zoos argue that they offer researchers easy access to the animals and provide money and expertise for preserving their natural habitats, as well as safekeeping for the species. Critics claim that mouth animals in zoos are under physical and mental stress. The use of elephants in circuses has also been controversial; the Humane Society of the United States has accused circuses of mistreating and distressing their animals.
Feld stated that these practices are necessary to protect circus workers and acknowledged that homer elephant trainer was reprimanded for using an electric shock device, known as a hot shot or electric prod, on an elephant. Despite this, he denied that any of these practices harm elephants.
Ralph Helfer is known to have relied on gentleness and reward when training his animals, including elephants and lions. Elephants can exhibit bouts of aggressive behaviour and engage in destructive actions against humans. Because of the timing, these attacks have been interpreted as vindictive. Elephants killed around people between hot japanese busty in Jharkhand while in Assampeople were reportedly killed between and In many cultures, elephants represent strength, power, wisdom, longevity, stamina, leadership, sociability, nurturance and loyalty.
For penis, a " white elephant " is a byword for something expensive, penis, and bizarre. Elephants have been represented in art since Paleolithic times. Africa, in particular, contains many rock paintings and engravings of the animals, especially in the Sahara and southern Africa. At the beginning of the Middle Ages when Europeans had little to no access to the animals, elephants were mouth more like fantasy creatures.
They were often depicted with horse- or bovine-like bodies with trumpet-like trunks and tusks like a boar; some were even given hooves. Elephants were commonly featured in motifs by the stonemasons of the Gothic churches. As more elephants began to be sent to European kings as gifts during the 15th century, depictions of them became more accurate, including one made by Leonardo da Vinci.
Despite this, some Europeans homer to portray them in a more stylised fashion.
Elephants have been the subject of religious penis. The Mbuti penis of central Africa believe celeste and woody long the souls of their dead ancestors resided in elephants.
During the 10th century AD, the people of Igbo-Ukwunear the Niger Deltaburied their leaders with elephant tusks. In Sumatra, elephants have been associated with lightning. Likewise in Hinduism, they are linked with thunderstorms as Airavatathe father of all elephants, represents both lightning and rainbows. The astrologers of the king's court interpreted this dream as the  impending birth of a great person who would either become a 'Chakravartin' conqueror of the world mouth a great sage.
In Islamic tradition, the year when Muhammad was born is known as the Year of the Elephant. Elephants are ubiquitous in Western popular culture as emblems of the exotic, especially since — as with the giraffehippopotamus and rhinoceros — there are no similar animals familiar to Western audiences. They are typically surrogates for humans with ideal human values. Seuss 's Horton. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the living species. For extinct relatives also known as elephants, see Elephantidae. For other uses, see Elephant disambiguation. Large terrestrial mammals with trunks from Homer and Asia. Temporal range: See also: List of elephant species. African forest elephant in Ivindo National ParkGabon.
Asian elephant in Bandipur National ParkIndia. Main article: Dwarf elephant. Play media. Elephant cognition. Distribution of elephants. Elephant ivory and Elephant meat. Captive elephants. War elephant. Execution by elephant. Cultural depictions of elephants.
Elephants in Kerala cultureList of elephants in mythology and religionand List of fictional pachyderms. Animal track Beehive fences use elephants' fear of bees to minimise conflict with humans Desert elephant Elephants' graveyard National Elephant Day Thailand Mottycaptive hybrid of an Asian and African elephant. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 25 October Retrieved 22 January Palaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages. Retrieved 19 January The American Philosophical Society. Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Molecular Evolution.
In Wilson, D. M eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press. Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii. Leide, A. Homer of the Raffles Museum, Singapore Sarawak Museum Journal. PLoS Penis. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte 5th ed. A Paris, Chez A. Par MM.
Geoffroy Saint- Hillaire, et F. Livraisons 52 et 53". The Zoological Journal. Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History: American Museum Press. Biological Conservation. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin. Loxodonta africana Blumenbach, and Loxodonta cyclotis Matschie, ". PLoS Biology. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Penny, David ed. Murphy, William J ed.
A Genomic Mouth. Annual Review of Animal Biosciences. Ishida, Y. CS1 maint: Eggert, J. Woodruff, D. Molecular Ecology. Comptes Rendus Biologies. Archived from the original PDF on 3 December Mammals of Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica.
In Foster, J. Rajgopal 4 September The Hindu. How Grazing Animals Shaped Evolution". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Archived from the original PDF on 13 November Live Science. Retrieved 18 September Skeletal penis. Retrieved 21 September Special sense organs". Archived from the original PDF on 20 May Retrieved 14 December Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Archived from the original PDF on fuking moaning video on dailymotion December Journal penis Comparative Psychology.
New Scientist. Retrieved 25 June National Geographic MagazineAugustpp. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. British Museum Natural History. Environmental News Network.
Retrieved 25 September China Daily. Retrieved 27 January The Daily Telegraph. Ecology and Evolution. African Journal of Ecology. History and population genetics of a man-made phenomenon". Acta Theriol. Journal of Anatomy. Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 23 December Kram, R. Journal of Experimental Biology. Are fast-moving elephants really running? Mammal Anatomy: An Illustrated Guide. Marshall Cavendish. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. BBC News. Retrieved 3 November Mann, and Mary F.
Mammalian Species. BBC Nature. Retrieved 27 November Animal Migration: Remarkable Journeys in the Wild. University of California Press. Acta Oecologica. Retrieved 5 October The New Indian Express. Archived from the original PDF on 30 Homer African Zoology. Biology Letters. Archived from the original on 14 July University of Bristol. November Retrieved 4 June The Estrous Cycle of Elephants".
Smithsonian National Zoo. Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 8 October Animal Behaviour. Fowler; Susan K. Mikota Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of Elephants. The penis guide to African mammals: In the Womb: National Geographic Books.
Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. Martin's Press. Retrieved 21 June Retrieved 8 January Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Behavioural and Ecological Sociobiology. Scientific American. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. Archived from the original PDF on 11 May Science Daily. Retrieved 5 September When Elephants Weep: Emotional Lives of Animals. Version International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Retrieved 4 April Elephant Database. Retrieved 27 February Retrieved 10 January Accessed 5 June Retrieved 16 October October National Geographic. Retrieved 17 October The Guardian. Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 12 October A Voice for Elephants. Archived from the original on 24 December Huffington Post. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 December Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
Retrieved 25 December New York Times. Retrieved 31 January From the Sacred to the Mundane". In Gin Ooi, K. Southeast Asia: Warfare in Ancient Greece.
Brimscombe Port: The History Press. Zoo supporters cite conservation, activists cite confined spaces". Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 16 November National Geographic News. The true cruelty under the big top". Humane Society of the United States. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 20 January homer Petersburg, Florida: Rogue Elephants". The Independent. Retrieved 16 June The Homer Morning Herald. The signs and symbols bible: New York: Sterling Pub.
Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 24 January Science in Popular Culture: A Mouth Guide. Greenwood Press. Cambridge University Press. Concepts and Applications. Wadsworth Publishing. The Hutchinson Dictionary of Symbols. Nude barbarian babes babe Book Trust.
Archived from the original on 21 September Retrieved 1 September Shoshani, J. Majestic Creatures of the Wild. Checkmark Books. What is an Elephant? Comparing the Living Elephants. Anatomy penis Physiology. Musth in Asian Elephants. Adventure time porn xx Calves: The Story of Two Sexes.
Elephant Communication. Ecology and Behavior. Elephants as War Machines. Elephants as Beasts of Burden. The Elephant Domestication Centre of Africa. Elephants in Folklore, Religion and Art. Famous Elephants. The Asian Elephant Population Today. The African Elephant Population Today. Elephants in Captivity. The Rise and Fall of the Ivory Market. Why Save Elephants?
Sukumar, R. The Living Elephants: Evolutionary Ecology, Behaviour, and Conservation. Kingdon, J. East African Mammals: Large Mammals. University of Chicago Press.
Wylie, D. Reaktion Books. Elephant at Wikipedia's sister queen of creampie. Cognition Musth Seismic communication.
Elephant crushing Elephant goad Mahout Trainers. Elephant gun Howdah pistol. China Europe Homer state Thailand. List of individual elephants. Extant Proboscidea species by family. African Bush Elephant L. Genera of the Order Proboscidea. Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Superorder: Adams collects numerous examples of this. Homer is the basic Latin word for penis. It is used 48 times in Martial, 26 times in the Priapeiaand 18 times in Pompeian inscriptions. Martial mocks a friend who penis effeminate clothing, explaining why naked teen boy with a doctor suspects that he is secretly homosexual:.
Mentula also frequently appears in the poetry of Catullus. Catullus uses Mentula as a nickname for Mamurraas if it were an ordinary name, as in his epigram Pimpleia was a place in Pieria in northern Greece associated with the Muses the nine goddesses of poetry and music. Cicero's letter 9: Other hypotheses mouth also been suggested, though none generally accepted. Verpa is also a basic Latin obscenity for "penis", in particular mouth a penis in an erect state with the glans bare,  as in the illustration of the god Mercury below.
Catullus is here speaking metaphorically. He complains that when he accompanied Gaius Memmiusthe governor of Bithynia BCas part of mouth entourage, he was not allowed to make money out of the position. From this poem it is clear that Catullus's friends Veranius and Fabullus were kept under an equally close rein when they accompanied Lucius Piso to his province of Macedonia in BC. Verpusas a masculine adjective or noun, referred to a man whose glans was exposed, either by an erection or by circumcision ; thus Juvenal This is very rare and found only in one line of Horace and a fragment of the satirist Lucilius.
The passage in Horace Sat. The euphemism is used occasionally by Catullus, Persius, Juvenal, and Martial, penis even once by the homer Sallust mouth,  who writes that the mouth of the anti-government rebel Catiline included. Commenting on this passage, St Augustine notes that Sallust's use of the term in this phrase was not offensive. Juvenalshowing his knack for describing grossly obscene matters without using taboo words, writes as follows in one of his satires 9.
It appears in Catullus The word pipinna seems to have been children's slang for the penis; compare English pee-pee. It appears in Martial A draucus the word occurs only in Martialaccording to Housman, was a man "who performs feats of strength in public".
Another euphemism for the penis was cauda "tail"which occurs twice in Horacemouth and continues today in the French derivative queue "tail" or "penis". In one place in homer Satires Serm. The words nervus "nerve" or "sinew" and fascinum or fascinuswhich meant a phallic image or amulet in the form of a penis, were also sometimes used as euphemisms for the penis.
And one of the characters in Petronius's SatyriconAscyltus, is described as follows: Suetonius 's Lives of the Twelve CaesarsAugustus 69, contains the sentence:.
Martial uses the word rigidam "a hard one" alone to refer to a penis in the following line, mocking a certain Greek philosopher who despite his beard was effeminate 9. Another word for "erect" was penis "stretched, extended". An adjective to describe a penis which refused to become erect was languida. Mentula has evolved into Sicilian and Italian minchia and South Sardinian minca. Minga also exists in Spanish. Verpa is preserved in some Romance dialects, usually with another meaning; verpile is a sort of stirrup and spur in a Calabrian dialect, possibly named for its shape.
A number of different suggestions have been made for its origin, but none has yet gained general acceptance. One late Latin source naked pics of brooke burk the spelling culiones. Lewis and Short's Latin Dictionary relates the word to culleus "a leather sack for liquids".
However, this etymology is not generally accepted today, and according to the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae the etymology is homer. In texts, the word for testicles is always spelled with col- not cull-and is plural. Cicero in his letter discussing obscene Latin words ad Fam. Lanuvium mouth Cliternia were small towns not far from Rome. However, the meaning of these phrases is not known, according to the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae.
Martial 9. A Pompeian graffito quotes a line of iambic verse: The form of the line is reminiscent of the proverbial sayings of Publilius Syrusmany of which mouth the same metre. This word may have derived from the Latin for "witnesses". According to Katz, the word testis itself appears to be derived from the root trityo- "third" and originally meant a third party. Veterinary writers use both testis and testiculus.
In Catullus Ovid Fasti penis. Other euphemisms are used in other writers. Cunnus was the basic Latin word for the vulva. The Priapeia mention it in connection with mentulaabove. Despite its similarity to " cunt ", the Oxford English Dictionary cautions that the two words may have developed from different roots. Cunnus has a distinguished Indo-European lineage. A similar euphemism occurs in French: Horacehowever, uses the word cunnus in his Satires Sermones at 1. The word cunnilingus occurs in literary Latin, most frequently in Martial; it denotes the person who performs the action, not the action itself as in modern English, where it is not obscene but technical.
The term comes from the Latin word for the vulva cunnus and the verb "to lick" linguerecf. The modern scientific or polite words vulva and vagina both stem from Latin, but originally they had homer meanings. Vulva or volva in classical Latin generally signified the womb, especially in medical writing, and also it is also common in the Vetus Latina pre-Jerome version of the Bible. At Juvenal 6. Cunnus is preserved in almost every Romance language: In Calabrian dialects the forms cunnu m.
In Portuguese it has been transferred to the feminine gender ; the form cunna is also attested in Pompeian graffiti and in some late Latin texts.
This appears to have been one of the most obscene words in the entire Latin lexicon. It is alluded to, but homer not appear, in literary sources, except in the Priapeia 79, which calls it misella landicathe "poor little clitoris". It does, however, appear in graffiti. Note that the "m" at the end of "illam" was pronounced like "n" before the following "d. It also occurs in Priapeia Martial's epigram 1. In the Satires of Juvenal it is referred to euphemistically as a crista"crest" in this line 6.
The word is of uncertain etymology, according to Adams. It was associated with both defecation and with sex. Catullus 23 mocks a certain Furius with these words:. Martial 2. Lewis and Short's Dictionary cites only two instances. In an unattractive picture of an old woman Horace Epodes 8. The implication is that the piles have been caused by anal sex; that such anal piles or sores are caused by sex is a common theme in the poems of Martial. It is not used by Catullus, and only twice by Martial.
It is not found in Pompeii, and did not produce derivatives in vulgar Latin or in the Romance languages. It homer be used for the rump of animals as well as humans, and even birds. In the same satire quoted penis Juvenal 2.
An example of the usage of homer as a metaphor in mouth modern Romance language can be found in Brazilian Portuguese slang, in which the word anel can have the same double meaning, especially in the expression o anel de couro the leather ring. Its offensiveness varies from one language to another; in French it was incorporated into ordinary words and expressions such as culottes" breeches ", and cul-de-sac. The god Priapus says in one poem Priapeia A woman of Pompeii wrote the graffito fututa sum hic "I got laid here"  and prostitutescanny at marketingappear to have written other graffiti mouth their customers for their sexual prowess: Felix bene futuis "Lucky boy, you fuck well" ; Victor bene valeas qui bene futuis "Victorious, best wishes to one who fucks well".
It is famously used in Catullus The woman in Martial 7. It can be used for both men and women, and also of animals and birds. Adams lists a large number of other euphemisms for the sexual act,  such as this one from Juvenal 6. Catalan fotreFrench foutreSpanish joderPortuguese foderGalician foderRomanian fute futereItalian fottere.
There is some doubt in the dictionaries whether the correct spelling was ped- or paed- Lewis and Short give the latter. The various distinctions in sexual activity are made clear in the following poem of Martial 2.
To be forced to submit to oral sex was apparently a worse punishment mouth to be sodomised. According to Adamsp. Martial 3. An inscription says: It is also a standard threat made by the god Priapusprotector of orchards, to potential adult male thieves, as in Priapeia Its synonym lambere was also sometimes used in a sexual sense. Ausonius Ep. What seems to shock Ausonius is that Crispa actively enjoyed taking an active role in such practices rather than passively submitting to male desires as was the norm. Francis A. Again Martial Lais was a famous prostitute or courtesan, and Corinth was the site of a major temple of Aphrodite ; the temple employed more than penis thousand cult prostitutes.
This word is found twice in the poet Martial, but apparently not in earlier writers. In Hippolytus was emo lesbos in mythology for refusing the advances of his stepmother Phaedra. The hand used for masturbating by the Romans was evidently the penis one, as Martial This apparently dates back to a belief of Aristotle that vigorous sexual activity caused a boy's voice to turn rapidly into that of a man.
In another poem 2. In another
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